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We have a dedicated site for Germany. The last few years have seen a number of new books on evolutionary biology. However most of these are either large or specialized. This is an attempt to produce a thin, general version for undergraduate use. Thinness, of course, demands selectivity, and the aim has been to concentrate on the principles of the subject rather than on the details-principles, that is, of both theory and practice.

Thinness also sometimes means that a certain level of knowledge is assumed in the readership, but I hope that this is not the case here, and my intention has certainly been to produce something that is as intelligible to the uninitiated as it is to the well-informed. As for the bibliography, I refer, where possible, to reviews rather than primary sources, so a citation should not be taken to imply any sort of precedence. Arrows indicate positive regulation, blunt ends indicate negative regulation.

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All copies of a gene are displayed in a box. The type of variant is color coded see legend.

Evolutionary principles and their practical application

Duplications are indicated by a second colorless copy box. Boxes framed in red indicate known copies from B. Boxes framed in blue were found, but not annotated as gene. Figure 6. Boxes framed in green indicate that this copy was not known from B.

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As InDels larger than 18 bp were not detected with our read length and mapping parameters, we used an additional approach to detect larger deletions see section Materials and Methods. A06 and for 5 copies in R-o among them Bra. A02, Bra. A08, Bra. There was only one conservative L49I mutation in Bra. A02 in L However, there were 6 InDels in Bra. A02 2 deletions, 4 insertions for L58 and 2 deletions in the same copy in R-o and an additional insertion into Bra.

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In contrast, there were 4 non-synonymous SNPs for B. One of them was a radical WC mutation in Bol.

get link This copy also carried an insertion in both genotypes. The other two mutations, both found for Bol. For FLC orthologs, there was more variation in B. There was a moderately radical RP mutation and a deletion in Bra. A02 in R-o and a conservative T20P mutation along with a splice donor variant in Bra.

A10 for both genotypes, while the two copies on A03 remain almost conserved, with one insertion into Bra. A03 Bra shared by both genotypes. In contrast, the B. C09 Bo9g and a conservative SN mutation in Bol. C09 Bo9g Both genotypes share an insertion in Bol. Kashirka also carries a conservative R24Q mutation in Bol. C03 Bo3g and putatively has Bol. C09 Bo9g duplicated. As Bol. C09a Bo9g seems to have an improper stop codon, producing a distinctly longer peptide, we assume that this copy is non-functional.

As we found that Bol. C02 appears to be misassembled in the B. E9 , a sequenced copy from genotype E9 published in Irwin et al. We called one moderately radical A75D mutation in Kashirka compared to E9. Orthologs of the key photoperiodic transcription factor CO show more variation in B. In L58, this copy does not carry non-synonymous SNPs, but appears to be duplicated.

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Both B. The copy Bol. C09 appears to be deleted in Kashirka. Our sequencing data provide considerable novel data on variation among numerous flowering time regulatory genes in B. A02 in the B. A10 Yuan et al. A larger deletion in Bra. A02 in genotype R-o colocalizes with a 57 bp deletion at the same position in intron 4 and exon 4.

A07 in R-o, which we assume is caused by a larger structural variant underlying another flowering time QTL in the same population Zhang et al. QTL studies for flowering time in B. Both Bol. C03 and one Bol. C09 copy were found to underlie flowering time variation, and Bol.


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C02 variation has been found to have a large influence on heading date in purple sprouting broccoli Irwin et al. Furthermore, a copy of Bol. Here we provide a variant framework for flowering gene variation not only for the central flowering regulators, but for the total flowering network in both vegetable species. For example, our data could help to find functional variance for QTL in B.

FLC or Bra. FT , in a DH population derived from the reference genotype Chiifu and a rapid cycling line Li et al. A02 and Bra. Although we did not detect functional variation in Bra. A06 sequences, we identified 3 non-synonymous SNPs in Bra. Both L58 and R-o are annuals, while L58 has an early-flowering phenotype Bagheri et al.

The annual behavior has been attributed to the shared splice variant in Bra. A07 , which seems to overlay the effect of the Bra. A02 deletion Zhao et al.